Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)

Glossary: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z.
No Excuses: Existentialism and the Meaning of Life, Part I
by Robert Solomon. Lectures:
  1. What is Existentialism?
  2. Albert Camus, The Stranger, Part I.
  3. Camus, The Stranger, Part II.
  4. Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus.
  5. Camus, The Plague and The Fall.
  6. Camus, The Fall, Part II.
  7. Soren Kierkegaard, "On Becoming a Christian".
  8. Kierkegaard on Subjective Truth.
  9. Kierkegaard's Existential Dialectic.
  10. Friedrich Nietzsche on Nihilism and the Death of God.
  11. Nietzsche, the "Immortal".
  12. Nietzsche on Freedom, Fate, and Responsibility.
Argumentation: The Study of Effective Reasoning, Part I
by David Zarefsky. Lectures:
  1. Introducing Argumentation and Rhetoric.
  2. History of Argumentation Studies.
  3. Formal and Informal Argument.
  4. The Emergence of Controversy.
  5. Resolutions and Issues.
  6. Stasis — The Focal Point of Dispute.
  7. Presumption and Burden of Proof.
  8. Argument Analysis and Diagramming.
  9. Claims and Evidence.
  10. Reasoning from Parts to Whole.
  11. Reasoning from Cause to Effect.
  12. Establishing Correlations.

Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)

Spinoza by Roger Scruton

Time Line

Much of this is adapted from Spinoza by Roger Scruton.

Born in Holland to a family who were Jews immigrated from Portugal.

Publishes a Theological-Political Treatise anonymously in which he:

defended secular government, the rule of law and freedom of opinion ... richly illustrated by biblical examples that did not conceal the author's hostility to the government of priests and pharisees. The Treatise was banned, and its author briefly exiled from Amsterdam.

[p. 1 of Heidegger and Christianity (1994) by John Macquarrie.]